Educational and scientific activities of orthodox missionaries in China and the development of oriental studies in the 19th century
The article highlights the activities of the Russian orthodox spiritual missions in China in 18th-20th centuries, covering both educational missionary activities to attract the local population in the bosom of the Christian Orthodox Church and the study of culture, life and traditions of the peoples of China, Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, which had a beneficial impact on the development of oriental studies. This topic is relevant in current conditions of strengthening and developing Russian-Chinese relations in all spheres of life, including the humanitarian sphere. The article makes an attempt to disclose these processes on the examples of missionary and scientific activities carried out by I.K. Rossokhin, A.L. Leont'ev, I.Ya. Bichurin, Z.F. Leontievsky, O.M. Kovalevsky, V.P. Vasiliev, I.G. Kafarov. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the results obtained during scientific activity performed by Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin, a native of Chuvashia (reverend Jacinth), the head of the 9th Russian ecclesiastical mission of 1807-1821 in China, who made a significant contribution to the study of the Chinese, the Mongolian, the Manchu, and the Tibetan languages, compiled voluminous dictionaries on them, he was awarded four times with Demidov prizes, which were respectable at that time and earned the right to be called the founder of Russian oriental studies. The article shows the techniques and methods of perpetuating the memory of famous orientalists, including N.Ya. Bichurin, through the mass media, museum studies, scientific conferences, etc.
本文着重介绍了18-20世纪俄罗斯东正教在中国的传教活动，包括吸引当地人参与基督教东正教会的教育传教活动，以及对中国、蒙古、满洲、西藏等国人民的文化、生活和传统的研究。这种传教活动对东方学的发展有有益影响。在各领域，包括人文领域加强和发展俄中关系的现代条件下，这一主题具有现实意义。本文试图以罗索欣、里昂惕夫、比丘林、列翁季耶夫斯基、科瓦列夫斯基、瓦西里耶夫、卡法罗夫等传教和科学活动为例，揭示这些过程。本文特别注意分析了1807-1821年俄罗斯第九次东正教传教团团长尼基塔·亚科夫列维奇·比丘林（Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin）的科学活动。他对中国、蒙古、满族的研究做出了重要贡献，编了这四个语言的容量大的词典，四次获得德米多夫奖，并有权被称为俄罗斯东方学的奠基人。这篇文章展示了通过大众媒体，博物馆研究，科学会议等永远纪念东方学家，包括比丘林的方法。