The complexities of recent years have contributed to the expansion of Russia's innovative and R&D Cooperation with the PRC. The article is concerned with the Sino-Russian cooperation in the field of peaceful nuclear energy. The article provides a general description of the nuclear power locomotives within the Sino - Russian industries, highlighting the main directions and documentary basis for the interaction. It is emphasized that currently cooperation in the field of nuclear energy of the Russian Federation and China is based on a balance of interests and mutual benefit. The article elaborates on the directions of development that the Sino-Russian cooperation might take in the foreseeable future. It is highly likely that both Russian and Chinese nuclear industries will be simultaneously growing. The authors emphasized that it is necessary to develop a format for bilateral cooperation aimed at taking into account the goals of Russian Federation and China in the nuclear segment in third markets in conditions of tense competition.