The given article examines the theoretical issues related to the syntactic structure of simple sentences in Chinese. The author gives a definition of a simple sentence, indicates its contrast to the complex and complicated sentence. A simple sentence is analyzed in detail from the point of view of the predicate type. The author separately explores in details the structure of possession verb simple sentences. The special attention is paid to semantic grammatical similarities and differences of these types of sentences. For the explaining of theoretical approach for analysis of peculiarities of syntax structure of those types of sentences the author also gives some examples, including some situational examples.