The article is devoted to the characterization of the Russian-Chinese borderland in the form in which it was formed in the 17th century as a result of the campaigns of V. Poyarkov, E. Khabarov and O. Stepanov. The features of the entry of this territory into the Russian state, its economic development at various stages of the Russian presence, the relationship of the Cossacks with the local population and the Manchu state are considered. The reasons for the defeat of Cossack units in the confrontation with the Manchus are shown. When characterizing the indigenous population of the region, its ethnic composition and migration processes, especially ethnogenesis and ethnic histories of the main population groups are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the main ethnic groups - daurs and duchers. The hypotheses that have developed in Russian literature regarding the origin and ethnic nature of the peoples under consideration are critically evaluated. Based on the characteristics of the border demarcation between Russia and China following the results of the Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689, the space separating the two states is not considered as a border territory, but a buffer zone in which neither side tried to be particularly active.
本文主要探讨了17世纪波亚尔科夫、哈巴罗夫和斯捷潘诺夫三次远征所形成的俄中边疆的特征。分析了这一地区进入俄国的特点、俄罗斯存在的各个阶段的经济发展、哥萨克人与当地居民和满洲的关系。本文介绍哥萨克部队在与满族的对抗中失败的原因。在描述该地区的土著人口时，分析了该地区的民族构成和迁徙过程，民族历史的特点。特别关注的是主要的少数民族—达斡尔族和杜切尔人。文章对俄罗斯文学中形成的关于被审议民族的起源和族群认同假设进行批判性评价。根据1689年《尼布楚条约》达成后俄中两国边界划分的特点, 两国之间的空间不是边界领土, 而是一个双方都不试图特别活跃的缓冲区。