The Sino-Japonic manuscript Xue-guanhua/Gaku-kanwa (Learning Mandarin Chinese), compiled for students from the Ry ky Kingdom, is a noteworthy historical Chinese educational source. It represents historical cross-cultural interactions between Okinawan residents in China and the locals in a wide variety of speech situations, and as such it is one of the few historical cross-cultural sources available on Chinese communication and social behaviour. Along with revealing norms of historical Chinese communication, Xue-guanhua provides a vivid description of Chinese social and cultural customs. The present volume, which provides a detailed introduction and annotated translation of Xue-guanhua, is relevant not only to researchers but also to readers with interest in Chinese and Okinawan language and culture.
While the language of Běijīng served together with Manchu as the court vernacular in the Qīng dynasty, the city's dialect was not widely accepted in China as the standard for Guānhuà even in the late nineteenth century. The preferred form was a mixed Mandarin koiné with roots going back much earlier, such as that represented in Lǐ Rǔzhēn's mid-Qīng rime compendium Lǐshì yīnjiàn. A similar form of mixed Mandarin served briefly as the National Pronunciation of China in the early twentieth century and came to be called lán-qīng Guānhuà 'blue-green Mandarin'. This heterogeneous norm incorporated features of a variety of Mandarin dialects and eventually came to be disparaged as an unrefined cousin of the pure Běijīng standard. Yet in origin the old National Pronunciation was designed to encompass a mix of regional forms and intended to contain the most broadly accepted elements of various Mandarin types. The evolution and development of the composite Guānhuà norm reveal much about Chinese linguistic attitudes of the early nineteenth through early twentieth centuries and shed light on various perspectives about what standard Chinese should be and what a Mandarin-based norm should represent. Broad popular acceptance of Běijīng as the governing norm for pronunciation began slowly to take hold only after the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China finally officially promoted Běijīng as the national standard in the 1930s. Yet it then had to compete with a new mixed vernacular orthography called Latinxua sinwenz. Běijīng was not firmly established as the norm until the People's Republic of China definitively declared the city's dialect as standard in the 1950s
This is a course in Standard Chinese, a language that is often colloquially referred to as Mandarin. The origins of this language and its position in the Chinese-speaking world will be discussed below, in the section on linguistic background
Guanhua dialects classification Li Rong
In 1948, "Shenbaoguan" published the fifth edition of the atlas "New maps of the provinces of China": on the map "Spread of languages" (p. 14), the territory of distribution of the Chinese language, attributed to the Sino-Tibetan group, is divided into eleven regions: northern Guanhua, south-western western Guanhua, Guanhua of the lower reaches of the Yangtze, the groups of Wu, Xiang, Gan, Hakka, Yue, southern Min, northern Min, Huizhou dialects. The fifth edition has three main differences from the fourth: 1) the Guanhua of the upper Yangtze is divided into the south-western Guanhua dialects and Xiang dialects; 2) dialects of the Gan group were isolated from the Guanhua region of the lower reaches of the Yangtze; 3) Wan dialects were renamed to Huizhou dialects, and Wu, Yue, Hakka, Min and Chaozhou-Shantou were renamed respectively in dialect groups Wu, Yue, Hakka, Northern Min and Southern Min. The Southern Min group includes: a) in Fujian - Xiamen province and areas south of Xiamen; b) in Guangdong province - Chaozhou-Shantou region and Hainan (in the central part of Hainan, occupied by the Li language); 3) most of Taiwan (with the exception of a small area in the northwest, belonging to the Hakka dialects, and the central part occupied by the Gaoshan language). As the analysis of the three maps shows, the territory that was attributed to the area of distribution of Guanhua narrowed as more and more in-depth study of these dialects. The Huizhou and Xiang dialects, as well as the Gan dialects were consistently excluded from the Guanhua area
Linguists have always seen the notion of "language" as inherently problematic, and the question of whether a particular form of speech should be classified as a separate language or a dialect of a language cannot be answered easily indeed. In this paper, criteria such as shared standard norm, common ethnic identity, and mutual intelligibility are shortly reviewed. Then another method of disentangling languages and dialects based on the number of shared cognates in the 100-word Swadesh list is proposed. The method is tested on various examples.
Koryakov U. B. Chinese languages
The work on the creation of the Great Chinese Encyclopedia began in 1978. The GCE consists of 73 volumes, including more than 80 thousand articles, and a separate reference volume. The encyclopedia was published from 1980 to 1993 by the Chinese Encyclopedia Publishing company in Beijing. The information in the volumes is divided into 66 different thematic areas. The first volume of the encyclopedia, published in 1980, covered the topic of astronomy. Later, a CD version of the GCE was also released. Since 2009, there was work on the creation of a second, supplemented edition of the encyclopedia. The same Chinese Encyclopedia publishing company published a 10-volume Chinese translation of the Encyclopedia Britannica and the Great Soviet Encyclopedia translated into Chinese.
Zavyalova О. I. Dialects of the Chinese language. М., 1996
Language atlas of China / Ed. Wurm S.A. etc. Hong Kong, 1988
Yan M.M. Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. Munich, 2006
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