Chinese Dialects festival
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赣湘
Articles, books, monographs, resources and more, if you would like to learn about dialects!
Scientific literature
Gan
  • 赣文化通典·方言卷:江西方言. The Encyclopedia of Jiangxi Province Culture. Contains information about the language and culture of the speakers of the dialect, discusses issues of distribution, internal division, and language affiliation.
  • 赣语临川片-南城方言的语音系统 An article on the phonetic system of the Nanchang dialect
  • Study on Etymology Features of Chinese Language from the Ancient Words of Gan Dialect.  Jiugen Xiao, Ying Zhou.  The history of language development tells people that no matter the language or dialect has any problem on the language origin, and it will show different characteristics in the development of origin. According to the etymology of Chinese word, the origin and development have experienced three historical stages, such as the origin, derivation and syn-thesis. So does the Chinese dialect such as Gan dialect. The study of etymology features on Gan dialect not only has a th-eoretical significance but also has practical value for people to further explore its origin, development and related issues.
  • Analysis on the semantic evolution of Chinese Gan dialect from the perspective of cognition. Jiugen Xiao, Xijuan Chen, Lingjun Xiong.The development and changes of lexical mean-ings essentially reflect the development and change of people’s cognitive activities, so people’s cognitive aware-ness is reflected in words, which is also reflected in the word meaning evolution of Chinese Gan dialect. Whether in the extended way or pattern, the linkage, radiation, complex comprehensive changes of the lexical meaning of Gan dialect in Chinese, all follow a rule: The expression of the meaning in cognitive process will corresponding-ly change with the continuous deepening of human cognition.
  • Gan, Hakka and the Formation of Chinese Dialects. Laurent Sagart. The author argues that Hakka and southern Gan are sister dialects, as they share several innovations not found elsewhere; that they arose out of the Chinese dialect spoken in central Jiangxi in Song times, a stratified dialect which included a non-Chinese substratum, probably Miao-Yao; an archaic layer; and a more recent layer with an important Late Middle Chinese component. It is claimed that the linguistic boundary between southern Gan and Hakka arose secondarily due to the effect of an old administrative and geographical boundary. It is also argued that Hakka devoicing took place in the south, when Hakka was in contact with the MiaoYao language She, and that the old dialect of the city of Ganzhou may have played an important role in the formation of Hakka.
Xiang
A synchronic and diachronic study of the grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects by Yunji Wu
This is the first book in Chinese linguistics which discusses the grammar of a dialect group, in this case the Xiang dialect spoken in Hunan, from both a synchronic and diachronic prespective. The author uses new data and new frameworks to present her analysis. The synchronic part covers contemporary grammar across localities within the Xiang-speaking area by using the methods and theories of comparative and typological linguistics. The diachronic analysis reconstructs earlier grammatical systems based mainly on modern data but also on historical written records, and analyses the development of the syntactic systems of the Xiang dialects, adopting the methods and theories of historical linguistics and grammaticalization. The discussions in this book raise new issues on dialect research which have not yet been fully acknowledged by Chinese dialectologists. The author shows, for example, how the earlier layers of grammar may be reconstructed on the basis of modern data, and how the path of grammaticalization of functional words may be traced. The discussions reveal that the Xiang dialect group forms a transitional zone between northern and southern dialects. The syntactic constructions in these two areas often co-exist or are mingled in Xiang. Thus, the grammatical constructions in different localities of the Xiang dialect group often provide a bridge connecting the constructions of northern and southern Chinese, or Modern Chinese and Chinese of earlier periods. This book is of interest to scholars and students who are working on grammar, dialectology, historical linguistics, comparative linguistics, typological linguistics, and grammaticalization, as well as those researchers focusing on language policy, language acquisition, and education.

湘语语法研究 The study of the grammar of the Xiang dialect
«卢小群完成湘语语法研究» focuses on the following aspects:
1. General discussion. Author looks back at the history of Xiang dialect and current status of the study of Xiang grammar.
2. Word Formation. Gives a comprehensive look at grammatical word forms, systems of pronouns, prepositions, quantifiers, real-time negation, noun-temporatives, noun-directives, etc.
3. Syntax. Syntactic features of the Xiang dialect such as word order, disposition, passive turns, interrogative, comparative sentences and sentences with an "allow" component. Since the old generation of linguists, such as Zhao Yuanren began the annual study of the Hunan dialect, the study of the Xiang dialect has made great progress, but the results of the study of Xiang dialect are mainly achieved in phonetics and lexis, as for grammar, except for a few areas where deeper research has been done, most of the grammar material remains unstudied.

The study of the grammar of the Xiang dialect is of special and great importance because of the peculiar nature of the Xiang dialect itself: it is closely related to both northern and southern dialects, and is a kind of a transitional dialect, so its in-depth study will not only help to draw extensive conclusions on dialect interactions, but is also very important and valuable in revealing common and different features of northern and southern dialects.

Lu Xiaoqun, born in April l964, is a native of Huarong, Hunan. He is a professor at the School of Literature and Journalism and Communication of Central Pinyin University, a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Linguistics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and a member of the Chinese Linguistic Society and the National Chinese Dialect Society. He is a member of the Chinese Linguistic Society and the National Chinese Dialect Society. He has been teaching and researching Chinese Linguistics and Sociolinguistics in universities for a long time.

He has published monographs such as «Jiahe dialect research», «Xiangnan dialect pronoun research» and «Modern Copywriting Art». He presided over and participated in several provincial and national social science fund projects; he has published dozens of papers in dialects, opening and other domestic and foreign journals. The first chapter is the affixes of Xiang language.

  1. The content of word formation of "子" suffix
(1) N(thing) + 子

The Xiang language is often suffixed with "子" for small things, such as stars, lightning, weather, wind and rain, snow and ice, fields, plants, houses and so on. For example:

Stars:星子(Changsha) 星子(Shaoshan)、星子(Yiyang) 星子(Hengyang)、星子(Qiyang) 星子(Xinhua)、星子(Hengshan) 星子(Lianyuan)、星子(Loudi) 星子(Xupu)。
Rain:细雨子(小雨)、麻喷子、毛雨子(毛毛雨)、飘雨子(斜飘雨)、生雨子(雨) (Changsha)。
麻雨子、麻喷子(毛毛雨)、飘雨子(斜飘雨)、生雨子(雨) (Yiyang)。
飘雨子(斜飘雨)、毛雨子(毛毛雨)、构飞子(冻雨) (Shaoshan)。
毛雨子(毛毛雨)、飘雨子(斜飘雨)、生雨子(雨)、酣雨子(连阴雨) (Lianyuan)。
飘雨子(斜飘雨)、构飞子(冻雨) (Loudi)。
Note: some of the southern and western districts asShaoyang, Qiyang, Xinhua and Shupu do not use the "子" suffix. For example, Shaoyang, Xinhua and Qiyang use the word "小雨", while Xupu uses the word "儿儿雨".
Snow:凌构子(冰)、雪子(雪珠) (Changsha)。
凌杠子(冰锥)、雪子子(雪珠) (Yiyang)。
构链子(冰锥)、雪构子(冻结的雪)、雪粒子(雪珠) (Hengshan)。
凌构子(冰凌)、雪籽子(冰粒) (Shaoshan)。
凌钩子(冰锥)、雪豆子(雪珠子)(Shaoyang)。
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