The subject of the study is the lexical layer of the modern Chinese language. The object of the study is lexical gaps words realities, denoting objects and phenomena of material and spiritual culture, specific to Chinese people and nonexistent in the Russian language. The aim of the study is to highlight the questions of ways of overcoming the difficulties in translation these lexical units from Chinese to Russian. Authors examine the definitions of the multivalued term "translation', indicators of adequate translation, and also a classification of words realities and ways of transferring their meanings in the target language. The study was based on the method of continuous sampling of language material from lexicographical sources, descriptive and comparative methods. Examples of words realities in the Chinese language with translation into Russian are presented. The peculiarities of translation of the exoticism from the Chinese language to Russian are revealed. The results of this research can be used in the study of the vocabulary of the modern Chinese language, in the practice of its teaching, as well as in the preparation of textbooks.