The article aims to identify the differences and similarities of Chinese and Russian tea cultures. Tea is viewed as a carrier of culture, embodying the material and spiritual culture of the nation. China's tea culture as the cradle of tea culture is vast and deep and has a long history. The article points out that Chinese tea culture embodies the concept of five elements and at the same time combines the ideas of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. In Russia, the tea culture is also unique: it is an important part of the national culture, that is why it is reflected in all aspects of everyday life and mental state. The article makes an attempt to reveal the similarities and differences of tea culture in China and Russia in terms of the origin of tea drinking, the material embodiment of tea culture, and the spiritual connotation of tea culture. Having considered Chinese and Russian tea cultures with due regard to their differences and similarities, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that the results of the research help to understand the spiritual culture of the two countries through material culture, improve mutual understanding between peoples, and promote cultural diversity.