The relevance of this work is determined by modern economic and political world challenges, implying closer cooperation between Russia and the dynamically and efficiently developing countries of the East Asian region. An analysis of the results of studying the history of the activities of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Beijing, its role in shaping the image of Russia in China in the 19th century and studies of the territory of this closed country are important for understanding the current realities of Russian foreign policy. The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China in the 18th-19th centuries filled the forced vacuum of the presence of Russian state institutions in another country. Based on the analysis of numerous sources of Russian origin, the article examines in detail the history of the scientific activity of the Russian Ecclesiastic Mission in Beijing. The novelty of the work is that the institutions with which the mission cooperated are identified and the categories of mission participants who were engaged in science in China are indicated. The purpose of the article is to consider not only the missionary or diplomatic activity of the mission, but also its constant scientific work, initiated either by the mission itself, or carried out under its leadership or in execution. The article presents little-known facts of scientific cooperation: expeditions, the work of students and doctors of the mission.