The article analyzes the life path and scholarly activity of one of the Russian sinological representatives - Peter Ivanovich Kafarov (in monasticism - Archimandrite Palladius). When studying the biography of this scholar, the article analyzes his main works on the history and culture of China. The assessments of the personality of P.I. Kafarov and his works by Russian and Chinese historians are given. The scholarly activity of P.I. Kafarov in the Russian and Chinese historiography is considered. Attention is paid to the study of the fundamental works of historians A.N. Khokhlov, A.M. Kulikov and Chen Kaike. The relevance of the study is due to a comprehensive and scrupulous study of P.I. Kafarov's scholarly works, their significance for modern sinological research in Russia and China.