The Current geopolitical situation encourages Russia to look for partners not in the West, but in the East, the largest of which is China. Between Russia and China at the turn of XIX - XX centuries there was a multilateral context, which for a century only grew stronger. The Russian and Chinese first met at the turn of the XIII- XIV centuries, when both States were included in the Mongol Empire, and a part of the Russian prisoners went to China, from which a Russian regiment was formed as part of the Khan's army (1329). The origin of Russian-Chinese relations can be attributed to the XVII century, when Russia attempts to enter into a dialogue with the Manchu Qing Empire and equips several embassies. If the modern Russian society has at least a General idea about the medieval art culture of China (the art of calligraphy, porcelain, tea ceremony, landscape art, painting and poetry of the Tang era), only specialists know about the peculiarities of its development at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries. The artistic culture of China at all stages of its existence is distinctive, original, it accumulates other philosophical, aesthetic and ethical ideas than Western European culture. The purpose of the article is to attempt a comparative analysis of the socio-cultural space of Russia and China in the early twentieth century to identify similar trends and processes in the artistic culture of the two countries.