When learning Chinese as a foreign language, especially in the first years of study, mastering vocabulary and memorizing characters become the most challenging, which is why choosing the right teaching method can significantly improve the effectiveness of teaching Chinese. Developing effective methods of teaching Chinese still remains relevant and is acutely faced by domestic linguistics and linguodidactics. This article describes a part of the experiment aimed at analyzing the effectiveness of the available methods of teaching Chinese by identifying the features and factors that affect the process of memorizing and forgetting Chinese characters when teaching Chinese as a foreign language. In this experiment, the author analyzed the vocabulary list for learning Chinese as a foreign language (corresponding to level B1 of the Hanban standard). The vocabulary list includes 600 Chinese characters needed to pass the HSK Level 3 examination. In the course of the research, the process of memorizing and forgetting the lexical minimum for level B1 of Hanban standard was analyzed by an experimental way involving the group of students of the philological specialty of Perm State University. Based on the data obtained, the cognitive features and patterns of memorizing and forgetting characters were studied, groups of the most difficult characters were identified, the processes of memorizing and forgetting characters were described, and the effectiveness of methods for memorizing hieroglyphs was analyzed.