Practical and theoretical Chinese grammar: principles of exposition and consistent systematization
The paper focuses on the principles of analyzing the syntax of a simple sentence employed in the Chinese linguistic tradition. The authors examine the current approaches, with their advantages and disadvantages, and suggest a different model of describing grammar, namely, a semantic-syntactical model. The latter, in the authors’ opinion, presents grammar in a more precise and non-controversial way and is more consistent with the realities of Modern Chinese. Proceeding from the ideas of “implicit grammar”, suggested in the works of Tan Aoshuang, the authors attempt to show that the description of the simple sentence in Chinese can be reduced neither to the “subject-predicate” dichotomy nor to that of the “topic-comment”. There is a need for a model that would bring together syntax, semantics, pragmatics and the communicative purpose of the utterance. An integrated vision of the Modern Chinese grammar system, in its turn, is supposed to affect language teaching methodology.
本文探讨了汉语传统中单句句法分析的原则。作者考察了现有的语法描述方法及其优缺点，并提出了一种不同的语法描述模式，即语义句法模型。作者认为，后者更准确、无争议地呈现语法，更符合现代汉语的实际情况。本文从谭敖双的“隐语法”思想出发，试图说明汉语单句的描写既不能归结为“主语 - 谓语”二分法，也不能归结为“话题 - 评论”的描写。有必要建立一个将句法、语义学、语用学和话语交际目的结合起来的模式。对现代汉语语法体系的整体认识，反过来又会影响语言教学方法论。