The article is devoted to the evolution of the polemic of the soul between Buddhist supporters and its opponents, which were reflected in Chinese writing compositions written in the period of its distribution and expansion in China. The aim of this article is the opening of the essence of this polemic and its meaningfulness in the history of Buddhist expansion in China. In conclusion, the results of the scientific research are summarized. The polemic of the soul concluded with the appearance of the works presented by Buddhist schools formed in China. Meanwhile, the idea of the soul as the ontological basis for rebirth continues to be popular in the doctrine of Buddhism.