This paper describes theoretic and practical research of euphemisms in the Russian and Chinese linguocultures on the basis of the chosen thematic group. Particular interest of the research consists of studying euphemisms as linguistic, cognitive and cultural phenomena. Special attention is paid to the principles of ―euphemism‖ in national and foreign science. Specific consideration in the paper takes the determination of «general» and «unique» in awareness and definition in the ambit of the term "euphemism" in national and foreign science. The purpose of the research is to study the national-cultural characteristics of Euphemia, as well as the use of euphemisms of individual thematic groups in intercultural communication. The basis of the research is euphemistic vocabulary which nominates the thematic groups "Wealth" and "Poverty" in Chinese and Russian. Dictionary databases and handbooks are used as a source for the study. In the process, tasks such as studying the theoretical framework of Euphemia in Russian and Chinese; the collection and analysis of the chosen groups of euphemism both in above-mentioned languages; the comparison of Chinese euphemisms with their Russian analogues; the disclosure of linguistic and cultural features of the selected material are addressed and decided. The obtained results can be used in intercultural communication.