Today, the communicative method of teaching foreign languages is gaining more and more popularity, within which the main attention is paid to the formation of skills of live speech communication. However, this approach has gone through a period of formation, formation and testing on the basis of European languages, which in one way or another are closer to the Russian language in typological characteristics than Chinese, and therefore the analysis and assimilation of grammatical phenomena of European languages by students is much easier and faster than the grammar of Chinese language. That is why we are in no hurry to move away from the methodology of the aspectual teaching of Chinese. At the Institute of Linguistics and International Communications, when implementing the training program in the direction of "Foreign Regional Studies", we adhere to the aspect teaching methodology (综合 课 ， 听力 课 ， 汉字 课), which is also used in universities in the PRC. Nevertheless, in the process of teaching, we often observe the influence of the native language (more often Russian) on the commission of certain grammatical errors when trying to construct a phrase or sentence in Chinese. The article presents an attempt to analyze and classify typical persistent grammatical mistakes made by students when translating from Russian into Chinese, when composing statements in Chinese of a certain volume, from the standpoint of the theory of the topic nature of the Chinese language and positional morphology.