he article dwells upon the study of the traditions of celebrating the New Year in China and among the Eastern Slavs. They include the folk New Year symbols of the Eastern Slavs - “kalyada”, animal masks - goats, bears, oxen (tour), cranes; and people - a Gypsy man with a Gypsy woman, an old man with an old woman, a Jewish man with a Jewish woman, a gentleman with a lady, an officer and a young woman. The symbols of the most important winter religious holiday - Christmas - are the images of Jesus Christ, Our Lady, the Christmas Star of Bethlehem. Since the 19th century, such attributes of New Year as Christmas tree, Father Frost and Snow Maiden, Christmas toys, as well as symbolic “pictures” of folk New Year’s festivities in the form of sleigh rides, rides on troikas (three horses), various performances with batleikas (puppet shows of the Nativity) and skomorokhs (wandering actors and minstrels) were reflected within the folk art and the professional art. The symbols and the attributes of the Chinese New Year are the spring couplets “chunlian”, the image of the character “happiness”, the New Year pictures “nianhua”, paper patterns “chuanghua”, lanterns “denglong”, New Year toys depicting the image of a mouse, a tiger “lao hu”, a lion “shizi” and some other animals that have become some of the dominant New Year’s images and have found diverse forms of incarnation in various kinds of Chinese folk and academic art. These symbols contain the wisdom and quintessence of the folk culture, because they reflect traditions and customs of previous generations.