Legal principles, being the basis of legal norms, reflect people's understanding and perception of the basic laws, contain legislative value motivation, the basic spirit and direction of law enforcement interests. The paper focuses on the analysis of the criminal law principles in China and Russia. The basic principles of criminal law are considered one of the main problems in criminal law. In the process of drafting the Criminal Code, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as experts had different opinions as to whether it is necessary to further provide the basic principles in the Criminal Code of the PRC, what basic principles should be added, how and which Chapter of the PRC Criminal Code should describe these basic principles, etc. All these issues and their solutions are considered in this paper.