The article dwells on the study of the history and position of Sughdians in China. In the III-th - the VII-th centuries, a wide network of Sughdian trade colonies existed and flourished on the territory of China. This was a period ofpoliticalfragmentation in China and Sughdians were the main beneficiaries of trade on the Silk Road. In the VIII-th century, control of the Eastern section of the Silk Road passed to the Tang dynasty. In 755-763, a major uprising led by An Lushan took place in China (on the territory of the Tang Empire). There are different interpretations of this event in historiography. The article points out that one of the reasons for the uprising was the struggle of Sughdian Diaspora and the Chinese elite for access to resources and income from international trade on the Silk Road. The author shows that the consequence of the defeat of the uprising was the collapse of the Sughdian ethnic group in China.