This article analyses several maj or theories of Chinese rationality and features of Chinese thought in contemporary sinology. It analyses the discussions about the forms of Chinese reasoning, understanding the role of "numerology" in Chinese thought, as well as the ideas of the influence of Chinese language on Chinese thought. The article considers in detail theories of Chinese thought as "wisdom" of such authors as M. Granet and F. Jullien. It also mentions some ideas of J. Needham, A. Graham, Ch. Hansen, describes the results of reflection on Chinese rationality and Chinese language by Ch. Harbsmeier, gives an idea of the method of "Structural Analysis of Chinese Classics" by V.S. Spirin and A.M. Karapetyants, as well as the idea of Chinese 'constructivist' logic by A.A. Krushinsky. It also considers in detail the theory of Chinese "numerological" rationality by A.I. Kobzev.The analysis shows that 1) Chinese thought is fundamentally diverse; 2) Chinese thought is argumentative and polemical; 3) classical Chinese language has a potential for many diverse forms of rationality.