This paper describes theoretic and practical research of weather superstitions in the Russian and Chinese linguocultures. Particular interest of the research consists of studying weather superstitions that allow us to demonstrate the anthropocentrism of the different peoples' linguistic picture of the world. Weather as an important natural phenomenon affects various aspects of human life, which is reflected in the language and in particular in its phraseology. Special attention is paid to the definition of common and distinct meanings of the superstition in Chinese and Russian linguocultures. The purpose of the research is to study the structural-semantic characteristics and ethnocultural specifics of weather superstitions. Dictionary databases, handbooks and scientific papers are used as a source for the study.The materials of the research are the weather superstitions in Chinese and Russian, divided by lexical and semantic components: meteonyms, zoonyms-ornithonyms and components of the plants. In the course of this work, assignments such as: studying the theoretical base of weather superstitions in the Russian and Chinese linguocultures; collection and analysis of weather superstitions in the compared languages, comparison of Chinese weather superstitions with their counterparts in Russian. The obtained results can be used in intercultural communication.