The article aims to show how the social structure of the traditional Chinese society was formed and how this process influenced the formation of such features of the Chinese mentality as the tendency to develop a hierarchy, situationality, orientation at the inner circle. The author proposes a comprehensive model of social and personal elements interaction in the social life of ancient China. The paper analyzes the socio economic backgrounds for the origin of “voluntary” collectivism in China. The author reveals the essence of this phenomenon and argues that in ancient China social integration occurred due to horizontal integration of private relations, not vertical subordination of individuals to the code of universal principles. The author shows how such a type of collectivism influenced the Chinese mentality and political culture.