The article discusses the history of development and the way the Bible is translated into Chinese and Russian. The Bible is not only a classic document of Christianity, but also a comprehensive encyclopedia, an important source for studying the history of culture of the East and West. This is the most monumental translated historical document in the world. Bible translations are published in different languages in a large circulation for an impressive number of readers from different countries. Despite the fact that the study of Bible translations as a special branch of the humanities has existed for a long time, a comparative analysis of Chinese and Russian Bible translations is a new direction in translation studies, which sets the relevance of this study. And the article helps to prepare a dissertation. A comparative analysis of translations showed significant differences in the understanding of this classical work of religious culture by Chinese and Russian translators, due to the influence of a number of historical and cultural factors and a special geographical environment. At the same time, a comparative study of “culturally loaded” concepts and expressions in Chinese and Russian Bible translations made in different historical periods also showed that the theories and principles of translation, strategies and methods used by Chinese and Russian translators are very similar. In order to translate the values of traditional Christian culture, translators use two opposing techniques aimed at “domestication” and internationalization, combining the methods of literal and free translation. A comparative study of the translation of the Bible in Chinese and Russian languages contributes not only to the active study of outstanding monuments of world culture and religion, but also to intercultural exchange between peoples.