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Китайская народная картина няньхуа - феномен культуры XX века / Chinese national picture nianhua - a phenomenon of culture of the XX centure

Китайская новогодняя картина няньхуа - один из самых популярных и массовых видов графического искусства Китая XX в. По содержанию и художественному исполнению новогодняя картина близка к народному искусству, при ее создании используются художественные приемы гиперболизации, идеализации, условность обозначения. В середине XX в. вследствие политических факторов народная картина получила массовое распространение в форме агитационного плаката, создаваемого в реалистической манере. Изучение народной картины представляется необходимым для понимания основ традиционной китайской культуры.

Chinese folk painting nianhua (literal translation, “New Year's picture”) is a kind of Chinese graphic art, which received a wide popularity in the late XIX - early XX centuries. On the eve of the New Year in China everywhere decorated interiors of living rooms with colorful pictures containing New Year's greetings, they were pasted on windows, doors, gates. Decorative pictures had a utilitarian and cultic purpose: images of mythological characters and gods symbolized happiness, longevity, prosperity, protected from disasters and misfortunes. At the beginning of the 20th century, nianhua was produced in the woodcutting shops in a woodcut way, since the middle of the 20th century have been used modern technologies, including printing. New Year's paintings significantly different from national academic painting. The philosophical concept of New Year's painting was to reflect the spiritual life of the people, moral values, and artistic tastes. The images were built on the basis of folklore motifs, a rhythmic combination of bright colors created a decorative effect, so nianhua is a valuable material that demonstrates the aesthetic representations of the Chinese people, their folk traditions and symbols. The themes of the New Year's paintings are extremely diverse and includes the following: scenes from classical literature, religious and symbolic and benevolent drawings, genre art painting, calendars depicting 12 cyclic signs of animals, agricultural calendars and advertising pictures. During the history of its existence, the New Year's picture plays an important political and ideological role. Traditional paintings propagated the foundations of the orthodox Confucian ideology about social and ethical relationships, including hierarchy in the family and society: “Wu lun - the five principles of relationships”, “Xiao - filial piety”, “Ren - patience”. In the second half of the XX century, the New Year's picture is developing as an agitational poster. Under the influence of European painting and modern political processes in Chinese society, artists began to use a new artistic method - revolutionary realism on purpose to illuminate sociopolitical events, propagandize government tasks and resolutions. The basic principles of painting the New Year's picture are the decorative character (the brightness of colors, the rhythmic combination of color spots), the hyperbolism and idealization of images, the folklore basis of plots and the conventional symbolic-metaphoric language.

中国民间画年画(文字翻译,“新年画”)是一种中国的图形艺术,在十九世纪末至二十世纪初得到广泛普及。在中国农历新年的前夕,到处都装饰着客厅的内部,装饰着色彩鲜艳的图片,其中包含了新年的祝福,它们被粘贴在窗户,门,门上。装饰图片具有功利和崇拜目的:神话人物和神灵的图像象征着幸福,长寿,繁荣,免受灾难和不幸的影响。 20世纪初,木刻店以木刻的方式生产年华,因为20世纪中叶开始使用包括印刷在内的现代技术。新年的绘画与国家的学术绘画有很大的不同。新年绘画的哲学概念是反映人们的精神生活,道德价值观和艺术品味。这些图像是建立在民间传说图案的基础上的,明亮的色彩有节奏地结合在一起,产生了装饰效果,因此,年华是一种有价值的材料,可以展示中国人的审美表现,他们的民间传统和符号。新年绘画的主题极为多样,包括以下内容:古典文学的场景,宗教和象征性及仁慈的图画,体裁艺术绘画,描绘十二种动物周期性标志的日历,农业日历和广告图片。在其存在的历史上,新年的照片起着重要的政治和意识形态作用。传统绘画传播了正统儒家关于社会和伦理关系的思想基础,包括家庭和社会的等级制度:“乌伦-关系的五项原则”,“孝孝”,“仁忍”。在XX世纪的下半叶,新年的照片正在发展为激动人心的海报。在欧洲绘画和中国社会的现代政治进程的影响下,艺术家开始使用一种新的艺术方法-革命性的现实主义来故意阐明社会政治事件,宣传政府的任务和决议。画新年画的基本原则是装饰性(颜色的亮度,色点的有节奏的组合),图像的夸张和理想化,情节的民俗基础和传统的象征-隐喻语言。