A comparative analysis of Russian and Chinese languages at the morphemic level in modern linguistics is not sufficiently represented. Although morphemes are comprehensively studied and theoretically substantiated, there is no comparative analysis of the morpheme structure of these languages. The presence of such an analysis can lead to better understanding the structure of the foreign language, and therefore, contribute to the formation of lexical and grammatical competence. In this regard, the author considers and compares units of the Russian and Chinese word. Through theoretical analysis the main differences, similarities and relationships in the classification of morphemes are identified. The author also explains and justifies the basic principles of morphemic analysis in the languages. The article may be of interest to Russian and Chinese linguists in the sphere of second language acquisition. The article’s material can be used to create exercises for solving the linguistic problem - dividing a word into components.